Alex Douglas simply revealed a submit on arches and cash which I fairly preferred. It’s a straightforward learn, and I’ll simply provide my spin on one in all his factors. It additionally leaks right into a dialogue of engineering, which I’ll digress into on the finish of this submit.
He attracts on a superb e book — J.E. Gordon’s The New Science of Robust Supplies: or, Why You Don’t Fall By way of the Flooring. (I’ve sentimental attachment to this e book since I gained a duplicate of it and “Buildings: Or Why Issues Don’t Fall Down” from a provincial highschool physics contest. Each books gave me a great introduction to the non-electrical elements of engineering — presumably greater than my undergrad electrical engineering diploma, since Canadian accreditation our bodies don’t enable a lot area for non-EE content material in undergraduate programmes.) Within the e book, an arch is termed an “obvious impossibility.”
Why does an arch appear not possible? Think about constructing an arch from one aspect. Every wedge-shaped stone (or “voussoir” because it’s technically known as) is held in place by the one above it. However because of this every voussoir you attempt to lay (moreover the primary, or perhaps the primary two) should fall. You possibly can put one other on to carry it in place, however then there shall be nothing to carry up this new voussoir.
The important thing to an arch is Newton’s Third Regulation of Movement: for each motion, there may be an equal an reverse response. That you must use scaffolding to erect a complete arch, however as soon as full, the voussoirs push again on the forces exerted by their neighbours, and gravity retains the construction in a single place.
The hyperlink to cash (I lower out a pair sentences to maintain the quote size down)?
Our issues with understanding cash additionally come from pondering of forces unidirectionally. An equal to the seeming impossibility of arches is the weird skill of banks to create cash. A financial institution loans me £1000 and the cash magically seems in my account. The place did it come from? Not from anybody’s financial savings—in any case, no accounts have been debited. […]
That is initially extra puzzling than the arch. If banks can simply magic cash out of the air, how can cash have any worth? […]
The reply is that simply as a stone, when pushed, pushes again, so if you get a mortgage, the mortgage additionally will get you. Your deposit is known as a promise by the financial institution to make funds in your behalf, as much as £1000 (every time it makes a fee for you, it deducts that quantity out of your deposit). However you’ve additionally made a promise to the financial institution, to repay the £1000.
Another phrasing is to notice that the standard method of stating the commentary is that “banks create cash (M1) by extending loans,” one may additionally state that “entities create cash (M1) by borrowing from banks.” The primary phrasing appears to have the implication that banks simply magically snap their fingers and M1 seems — which generates endless controversy in on-line discussions. The second phrasing implies that cash creation is a two-edged sword (one of the best type of sword) — certain, the cash (M1) is created, however the borrower is saddled with a mortgage.
If the target of mainstream Economics 101 have been to impart information of how the world works, they might drop no matter technique of instructing banking and cash they use, and as an alternative educate the fundamentals of how banks work, after which “cash creation” would simply be understood as only one technique of credit score creation in a capitalist financial system. Sadly, the target of instructing is to push college students into excited about the financial system as some type of normal equilibrium mannequin, the place “cash” is a particular entry in a vector of “endowments” that brokers commerce with one another on the way in which to creating optimum societal outcomes. On this scheme, cash is just not supposed to look out of nowhere, it must be traded for.
These issues present up in two methods in discussions.
Dialogue of any subject the place cash is created finally ends up being ludicrous.
The sturdy perception that any type of cash that’s not purely an asset (versus gold cash, or crypto currencies) is faux.
Appendix: Engineering Philosophy (?)
On the finish of his article, Douglas states “Daniel Dennett writes someplace that it’s a disgrace there may be philosophy of physics, philosophy of biology, even philosophy of economics, however no philosophy of engineering. There isn’t fairly no philosophy of engineering. However extra can be good.”
Inside management techniques engineering, theoretical exercise is usually divided into two areas, evaluation and synthesis. These are phrases that I consider have a whole lot of theoretical baggage inside philosophy, however are simple inside management principle.
Evaluation is the dedication of how a given management system (each the system to be managed, in addition to a given controller) will behave, and its mathematical properties.
Synthesis is growing a framework to reply the query: given a system to be managed, methods to design a controller that has desired properties? (You want to have the ability to evaluation to find out the properties, however a way of study doesn’t indicate the power to design controls, because the design downside could also be mathematically intractable. My thesis title — An Enter-Output Evaluation of Suggestions Loops with Saturation Nonlinearities — was a nod to this actuality.)
That’s, evaluation seems to be similar to science (together with arithmetic): how do issues behave? Synthesis is the design aspect of engineering, which depends on (hopefully) figuring out how engineering techniques will behave. It’s comparatively simple to attract a line between these areas in utilized arithmetic, however the division exists all through engineering. Within the hypothetical three-year Quebec electrical engineering undergraduate programme (I believe schools have accepted the programme requires 4 years, regardless that CEGEP covers programs that might be taught in first yr undergraduate elsewhere in North America), the primary two years are virtually fully
”evaluation,” and solely the final yr has area to cowl design. However, the handful of sophistication hours dedicated to design is what separates science school graduates from engineering ones.
On the evaluation aspect, there may be not large divide from engineering versus science schools, and so one may argue that philosophy of science is relevant. Nonetheless, engineering evaluation will be messier, as pure sciences are inclined to give attention to idealised circumstances with a view to derive legal guidelines of nature, whereas engineers are caught with having to take care of real-world objects of curiosity. As such, heuristics are considered as extra respectable inside engineering.
The arch instance falls beneath evaluation, and will be considered as being totally different than the standard preoccupations of pure science. The scientific legal guidelines of the arch parts are simple, the problem is the “emergent property” of the arch construction. (I believe there’s a transfer to incorporate the research of “emergent properties” beneath science, though it was not part of the curriculum I studied.)
As for synthesis, one would possibly summarise it as “yay for Pareto Optimisation.” In the event you can design a brand new engineering system that’s strictly higher than an present one, you try this. (Pareto optimality refers to a scenario the place you are trying to maximise multiple goal perform. In the event you can not enhance the extent of 1 goal with out lowering one other, it’s Pareto optimum.) Nonetheless, actual world engineering is constructed round trade-offs, and also you sometimes find yourself with a menu of decisions, and one must resolve what goal to prioritise.
Commerce-offs are additionally considerably mushy, since you’ve human beings interacting with techniques. Take for instance security techniques. When you have security options that block human operators from interacting with techniques, inquests might then discover out the onerous method that operators would possibly disengage these security options since they’re seen as too cumbersome.
To return to an instance that I usually talk about, optimum management principle bumped into extreme difficulties as a result of folks acquired enthusiastic about “optimum options,” and forgot in regards to the trade-off aspect of engineering. The strong management (and classical management) response was to argue that we have to keep in mind our uncertainty in regards to the system we’re controlling versus the aggressiveness of our management inputs: the extra sure we’re we all know how the system behaves, we are able to ramp up the aggression. A simplified model of the commerce off is that one is buying and selling off robustness towards mannequin error versus aggressiveness of management motion.
Engineering is an uncommon school from the angle of a “old fashioned” college; a whole lot of the educational effort is in areas which are onerous to disentangle from the pure sciences, whereas a whole lot of the worth of the schooling comes from drumming into the skulls of undergraduates the significance of usually vaguely-defined trade-offs that sometimes seem inside an space of expertise. If one needs to pursue a philosophy of engineering, this twin nature must be saved in thoughts.